The district of Thoubal,
which occupies the bigger portion of the eastern half of the Manipur
Valley, takes the shape of an irregular and triangular with its base
facing north. It lies between 23°
45' N and 24°45'
N latitude and 93°45'
E and 94°15'
E longitude. It is bounded on the north by Imphal district, on the east
by Ukhrul and Chandel districts, on the south by Chandel and
Churachandpur districts and on the west by the districts of Imphal and
Bishnupur. It has an area of 514 sq.kms. as supplied by the Surveyor
General of India. Its average elevation is not very much different from
the rest of the Manipur Valley which is about 790 metres on an average
above the sea level. Although the district is a part of the valley, the
area of the district is not entirely plain. Many rivers flow through the
district and many lakes dot its surface. Some of the which are closely
inter-twined with many folk tales and stories, of which mention may be
made of the fishing and other episodes of the love story of the
legendary Khamba-Thoibi. In fact, all important lakes of Manipur, with
the exception of Loktak, are in this district. The State of Manipur used
to supplement its meager resources from the annual lease of the lakes in
Important rivers that flow through the district are the Imphal and the Thoubal. The Thoubal river originates in the hill ranges of Ukhrul and is an important tributory of the Imphal river. On its course, it passes through Yairipok and Thoubal before joining the Imphal at Irong near Mayang Imphal. The Imphal river rises in the hills of Senapati district and flows south. It forms the boundary demarcating line of Thoubal district on its north and the west. During the dry seasons these rivers are lean and thin but, during the rainy monsoon periods these rivers are very wild and frequent floods occur causing widespread damage to the paddy fields, property and life. These rivers were once good means of transport for valuable merchandise. Other rivers in the district are the Wangjing, the Arong and the Sekmai. These rivers originate in the hills of Ukhrul district. The Arong river flows through Khangabok and falls into Kharung Pat. The Wangjing river flows west via Heirok and Wangjing before joining the Loushi Pat. With the advent of cheap and faster means of road transport these rivers no longer serve as routes of transportation of goods. Still they provide good building materials in the shape of sand, pebbles and boulders and a means of livelihood for a large number of people inhabiting along their courses.
The south-western portion of the district is a low-land forming a part of the Loktak Lake region and this area has a number of shallow and rain fed lakes, the important ones being Kharung, Ikop, Pumlen, Lousi and Ngangou. On the northern portion there is Waithou lake form by the drainage waters sandwiched between Waithou hill on the west and the villages and paddy fields on the east. Due to constant siltation and reclamation of vast areas for agricultural purposes the lakes are gradually shrinking in size and at present some of them are only in name. These lakes drain into the Imphal river. They provided very good fishing ground for a variety of fishes in the recent past.
The district is dotted by a few hillocks and hills of low heights. Some of them are without, part of Khekman range, Mantak, Kwarok and Thongam Mondum-Punam. Of these, Punam hill has an elevation of 3310 ft. above sea level. Geologically, Khekman range belongs to the Brail Series and Simsang formation. Good vegetation once covered these hills. But constant deforestation have made them barren and unattractive. As the pressure on land increases with a rapid increases in population, there has been a tendency in recent years to use the hills sites for better productive plantation, specially pineapples.
On the whole, the district has an
equitable and pleasant climate. Rainfall is relatively abundant and
widespread. The rainy season starts in June with the onset of the
south-west monsoon and last upto September. Intermittent rains continue
even upto October along with the retreat of the monsoon. As in the rest
of the State, the district is also under the effect of the so-called '
Vagaries of the monsoon' with the alternating droughts and floods.
During the rainy season the rain water in the hills quickly flow down to
the valley and all the rivers and small streams rises to the full brim,
frequently flooding its embankments. As the lakes became full, the low
lying areas around them are easily amenable to flood. Drainage is slow
and takes a long time. The cold season last from December to February.
During the winter months light rainfall occurs under the influence of
the north-east monsoon, March and October are by far the most
pleasant months in the year. April and May are not hot season
followed by occasional thunder storms. Of Late, some changes in
the climate calendar in the state are observed which some expert
meteorologists attribute the cause as mainly due to deforestation in the
hills surrounding the valley.
|Flora and Fauna|
Various types of trees are found
all over the district. But the more commonly found varieties include
Pipal trees. Kabulliua, ( Oravila robusta ), Khok ( Albizzia Spp),
Tera ( Salimalia Malabarica ), Sileima ( Eugenia pracox),
Tairen ( Cedrela loona ) etc. Bamboos and plantain trees are
common everywhere. Various types of fruit-bearing plants also thrive in
the districts. Important varieties are pineapple, pear, peach, Jack
fruit, banana, mango, lemon, plum, guava, amla etc. The habit of the
local people to plant banyan trees along the road side and bamboos and
fruit bearing trees within their compounds give the rural areas a
permanent green scenery. Recently, the Government as also introduced
plantation of quick growing trees under the social forestry programme
along the road side.
The district is
generally poor in mineral resources. Among the minerals found in the
district, brine spring are of some significance. This springs are found
along the foothills on the eastern part of the valley. Water from this
springs are boiled and salt is extracted by the method of evaporation.
Agriculture Is the most
important source of livelihood for the people of the district. More than
70 per cent of the total population of the district are directly or
indirectly depended on agricultural activities. The valley is fertile
and the topography of the district provides good opportunity for
irrigation, natural as well as artificial. Rice accounts for above 90%
of the total land area under cultivation. Although the average land
holding is one of the lowest in India, yield per acre is comparatively
high. With the increasing use of fertilizers and the modern methods of
cultivation, there is a great scope of increasing the overall
Important livestocks found
in the district are cattle, buffaloes, goats, horses and ponies, pigs,
dogs etc. According to 1987 livestoks census, there are about 1,20,000
cattle and 8,000 buffaloes in the district. They are reared for milk and
for motive power in cultivation works. Cattle accounts a little more
than 82%of the total number of livestock in the district. Sheep, goats
and pigs are kept mainly for their meat. Fowls and ducks are the most
important poultry found in the district, fowls alone accounting for
60.91% of the total poultry in the district.
Fishing provides an important occupation for a large number of people in the district. The activity Is mainly conducted in the lakes and the enclosed low lands besides small ponds within the precincts of the household. Waithou, Kharung and Ikop are specially important for 'Ngaton', a variety of small fish noted for its taste. This fish as also Ngaaroi, Pengba, Tharak, Ngahou, etc. ( all local names ) was once caught in the lakes Of the district in good measures. But the large scale use of pesticides for agricultural purposes and the reclamation of the habitat and the special breeding grounds of these fishes are largely responsible for their gradual disappearance from the lakes and their catch now-a-days is almost negligible. There are 2 fish farms in public sector and 44 farms in private sector during 1987-88. Production table fishes in that year amounted to 3.5 tones and fish fingerlings to 11.9 lakhs numbers.
The district does not have any power house, either hydel or diesel. It gets its supply of power from the Loktak Hydro Electric Power House. But the quantity of power available through the Loktak grid cannot fully meet the need of the district. There is only one 33/11 KV sub-station. To augment power supply and to improve transmission and distribution of electricity in the district one 20 MVA, 132/33 KV sub-station at Kakching and another sub-station of 33/11 KV at Wangjing are under construction. Inadequate availability of power is a major constraint in the way of proper and rapid development of agro-based industries in the district.
The district has a fairly developed system of road transport. All towns and important villages in the district are connected either by the National or State or district or village roads. The total road length in the district in 1987 is 506.40 km which compares very favourably with the total district area 514.sq.km. It is the only district in the state where the road length per km. is almost at per with the area per sq. km. of area against the state, average of only 19.17 km. The National Highway No. 39- Indo-Burma Road, passes through the heart of the district and connects Lilong with Pallel via Thoubal. From Thoubal an important district road goes east to Sikhong Sekmai via Yairipok. On the southern portion, the state highway connects Kakching, Wabagai and Sugnu with Imphal via Mayang Imphal. The district has 35 km. of National highways, an equal number of kms. of state high way 60.40km. of district roads and 376 km. of village roads. The widening of the district and state highways, construction of a number of bridges and culverts and metalling of kaccha roads will go a long way in further improving the road transport systems in the district.
|Fair and Festivals|
The district is
mainly inhabitated by the Meiteis, the majority of whom have professed
Hinduism about 500 years ago and the important fair and festivals
observed in the district are a mixture of Hindu culture and the age--old
traditions and local beliefs. the biggest festival is the Dol Jatra
( Yaosang in local Manipur langauge ). It is observed in the month of
March beginning with the full moon day of Phalguna ( Lamda ) for the
next five full days. It is a festival of colours and all people, young
and old of both sexes, participate in it. During the day time, girls and
small children come out in groups and beg money. Boys joined them in fun
and merry making. During the night , boys and girls dance together to
the accompaniment of music and drums.
|Places of Historical importance and Tourist interest|
It is situated above 10 kms. to the south of Thoubal, the district headquarters ( 32 kms from Imphal ). It is the place where last war of Manipur's independence was fought between the Manipuri and the British soldiers. It has got a memorial erected on a small hillock, Khongjom is well served by the National highway. An eight-bedded Tourist home has been functioning there since 1988.
Situated 74 kms. from Imphal, the place is an important trading centre on the south of the district. From it a Beautiful view of the Imphal river can be seen. It is on the Imphal - Sugnu State highway.
The place is important for its scenic beauty. There is an inspection bunglow on the hill-side over looking the Waithou Lake. The place is noted for its tasteful pineapples. An exotic and delicious variety of local fish known as 'Ngaton' used to be available at this place abundantly till a few years back from now. It is on the National highway about 3 kms. from the district headquarters.
It is the sub-divisional headquarters of Kakching sub-division and is a famous trading centre of a variety of vegetables, fishes and rice next to Thoubal, the biggest town in the district. The place is easily approachable from the National highway and is connected to the other State highways.
It is the district headquarter of Thoubal district and also the sub-divisional headquarters of Thoubal sub-division. Situated at a distance of 22 kms. from Imphal, the National highway No. 39 divides the town almost into halves from north to south length-wise. The Thoubal river flows through the centre of the town from east to west. It is the biggest town in the district and is one of the most important trading centre of the district. The town has all the infrastructures of a fast developing urban area.
It is a place situated at the border of Thoubal and Chandel districts and is the meeting place of plain areas of Thoubal and the hill areas of Chandel. Indo-Myanmar road from Imphal to Moreh passes through it. With its hills and rivers the place has a beautiful landscape. Typical agricultural Products and nice handicrafts of the hilly people are regularly found in its daily market.
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Thoubal District Unit, Thoubal - 795138
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Data Maintained by District Administration, Thoubal